As part of WP10 of the CENTER-TBI project, translations of outcome assessments have been undertaken for up to 20 languages.

General Process

When translations of assessments were not available, the material originally in English was translated into local languages of the countries who participated in the CENTER-TBI study using a process of linguistic validation based on good practice (v. Steinbuechel et al, 2021). Native speakers, predominantly experts in the field of TBI, were asked to perform forward and backward translations as well as harmonization of the translations. Cognitive debriefings – where possible – were carried out with a sample of lay individuals and/or individuals after TBI. A team of international researchers and CENTER-TBI collaborators refined the translations in national and international harmonization rounds until consensus was reached.

Material for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT) was primarily generated using linguistically and culturally adapted translations of the source lists with the aim of retaining characteristics such as the familiarity, concreteness and imageability of words. Word frequency was checked using available corpora.

Where the language sample sizes in the CENTER-TBI database were sufficient, psychometric validation of the patient-reported outcome instruments was carried out. Other information on studies concerning the psychometric properties of individual assessments can be found in the CENTER-TBI publication list.


  • GOSE Interview (GOSE) /GOSE Questionnaire (GOSE-Q): with the kind permission of Prof. Lindsay Wilson (University of Stirling, UK)
  • GOAT: with the kind permission from Prof. Harvey S. Levin (Baylor College of Medicine, TX, USA)
  • GAD-7: with the kind permission of Prof. Kurt Kroenke (Indiana University, Department of Medicine).
  • PHQ-9: with the kind permission of Prof. Kurt Kroenke (Indiana University, Department of Medicine).
  • PCL-5: with the kind permission of Prof. F. Weathers (Auburn University, AL, USA)
  • RPQ: with the kind permission of Dr. Nigel S. King (University of Oxford, UK)
  • Qolibri/Qolibri-OS: with the kind permission of Prof. Nicole von Steinbüchel and the Qolibri-Task Force (University Medical Centre Göttingen). All translations of the QOLIBRI and the QOLIBRI-OS instruments are freely available for academic use from CENTER-TBI and QOLIBRI. Translations of these instruments developed within the CENTER-TBI project (Arabic, Bulgarian, Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, Hebrew, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovakian, and Spanish), are also free for commercial use. All other translations of these instruments that preceded the CENTER-TBI effort may be subject to a fee for commercial use. For further information, please access QOLIBRI.
  • SF-12v2 and SF-36v2: the copyrighted translations have been used for outcome assessments in CENTER-TBI. We refer to Qualimetric for the purchase and use of these translations.
  • CANTAB: has been used for outcome assessments in CENTER-TBI. We refer to Cambridge Cognition for use of CANTAB


No warranties or representations of any kind are made as to the accuracy, currency, or completeness of the information accessed and used through the CENTER-TBI website.

You agree that access to and use of the material is at your own risk. We disclaim all warranties, express or implied, including warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. Neither the owners of the CENTER-TBI website nor any party involved in creating, producing, or delivering the material shall be liable for any damages, including without limitation, direct, incidental, consequential, indirect, or punitive damages, arising out of access to, use of or inability to use the material, or any errors or omissions in the content thereof. This limitation includes damages to, or for any viruses that infect, your computer equipment.


When using these translations, please cite as follows:

Translated from the original English version by the CENTER-TBI Consortium – see (v. Steinbuechel et al, 2021).


By clicking on the corresponding -icon below, you can download the instrument in the corresponding language. The languages with a yellow -icon need further linguistic validation work. If you are interested to use these translations in the future, please contact

* Only forward translation available. Please contact